Hotan’s relationship with the East Turkistan Islamic Republic is Uighur

By April 1933, Hotan city and surrounding counties will be liberated by Hotan rebels. The headquarters of the secret revolutionary organization led by Mohammad Amin Bughra will be moved from Karagash to Hotan Ilchi. Thus, in the middle of April, the Hotan Islamic Government, the first fruit of the East Turkistan National Revolution, will be officially established. On June 17th of the same year, the Hotan army, which is advancing victoriously in both directions, will occupy the city of Jerkan. In this way, the Bipayan lands from Charchan-chak in the east to the new side of the Yerkan River in the west will be under the control of the Hotan government.

At this time, Sabit Damullam, the Minister of Religious Affairs and Shaykh-e-Islam of the Hotan Islamic Government, proposed a plan to go to Kashgar. The leaders of the Hotan government headed by Mohammad Amin Bughra did not support Sabit Damollam’s plan in view of the complicated situation in Kashgar at that time, but due to Sabit Damollam’s insistence, Muhammad Amin Bughra’s brother Emir Abdullah Sabit Damollam accompanied Emir Abdulla Sabit Damollam to go from Yerkan to Kashgar with a unit of soldiers.

شەرقىي تۈركىستان ئىسلام جۇمھۇرىيىتىنىڭ باش مىنىستىرى سابىت داموللام (ئوڭدا) ۋە خوتەن ئىسلام ھۆكۈمىتىنىڭ مالىيە نازىرى ھاجى مۇھەممەد قاسىم بەگ (سولدا)، 1933-يىللىرى.
Sabit Damollam, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkistan (right) and Haji Muhammad Qasim Bagh, Minister of Finance of the Hotan Islamic Government (left), 1933.
RFA

After Sabit Damollam arrived in Kashgar, he first set up the “office center of the Khotan government” and began emergency preparations. At this time, Kashgar was controlled by the rebels led by Iron Eli, but a group of armed forces consisting of Chinese and Tungans defended the walls of Kashgar New City and fought with the rebels. Moreover, the national revolutionary army led by Khojaniyaz Hajim to the south of the Diyarbakır Mountains had not yet arrived in Kashgar. The neighboring empires, which were watching the lands of Eastern Turkistan, were worried about the waves of national revolution there. The Soviet Bolshevik government in Red Moscow and the Indian authorities under Great Britain in New Delhi were closely watching the dramatic changes taking place in Kashgar, a point of mutual observation between the two empires.

It is in such a turbulent and complex situation that on November 12, 1933, the East Turkistan Islamic Republic was established in Kashgar. Mr. Ulimjan Inayet, professor of the College of Turkish World Studies, Aga University, Turkey, expressed his views in this regard. He expressed his opinion about why Sabit Damollam went from Hotan to Kashgar at that time and how he established the East Turkistan Islamic Republic in Kashgar, where the situation was turbulent.

Mr. Abdulla Oizt, a graduate student of Istanbul University’s Turkic College, translator of “History of Eastern Turkistan” into Turkish, and one of Muhammad Amin Bughra’s cousins, mentioned some details about the relationship between the Hotan government and the East Turkistan Islamic Republic established in Kashgar. He emphasized that the Hotan government’s military and financial assistance played a decisive role in the establishment of the East Turkistan Islamic Republic in Kashgar on November 12, 1933.

Mr. Abduljalil Turan, the head of Teklimakan Uyghur Publishing House in Istanbul, who collected the works of Muhammad Amin Bughra and prepared them for publication, also shared his views with the radio listeners on this point. He emphasized that although the leaders of the Hotan government led by Mohammad Amin Bughra did not agree with Sabit Damollam to go to Kashgar, they later sent some military forces and about 7 kilograms of gold to Sabit Damollam to help the East Turkistan Islamic Republic government established in Kashgar.

According to Mr. Abdullah Oyts based on the statements in “History of Eastern Turkistan”, there were some grievances and disagreements between the Hotan government led by Muhammad Amin Bughra and the Islamic Republic of East Turkistan, which was later established in Kashgar. That is, the establishment of a separate government in Kashgar by Sabit Damollam without any consultation with the Hotan government displeased the Hotan side, but the Hotan government led by Muhammad Amin Bughra provided military and financial support to the government of the East Turkistan Islamic Republic of Kashgar in view of mutual unity and the general situation.

شەرقىي تۈركىستان ئىسلام جۇمھۇرىيىتى ھۆكۈمىتى تەرىپىدىن تارقىتىلغان پاسپورت، 1933-1934-يىللىرى.

Mr. Abdujalil Turan also said that the Hotan government led by Muhammad Amin Bughra supported and strengthened the Islamic Republic of East Turkistan in view of the unity between them and the general interests of the nation. Promotes departure advice.

Muhammad Amin Bughra, in his book “History of Eastern Turkistan”, said that Sabit Damollam, the minister of religious affairs of the Hotan government, insisted on going to Kashgar “at a time when the national revolution has not yet achieved a result, and the strengthening of the national revolutionary forces is very necessary.” He writes that the power caused internal disagreements, and as a result, it was a very serious mistake that should be written down in the history of the National Revolution.

Finally, Professor Ulimjan Inayet, in his book “History of Eastern Turkistan” by Mohammad Amin Bughra, explained in detail the internal and external reasons why the East Turkistan national revolution ended with tragic consequences in the 1930s, especially the internal disagreements and disunity between the leaders of the revolution, which led to the failure of the national revolution. He stressed that he lamented his weakness.

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